Authorship Examinations

Authorship Examinations2024-05-16T16:13:20+00:00

Authorship and Handwriting Expert Services

As handwriting experts, we specialize in providing clarity and resolution in cases where the authenticity of signatures is disputed, particularly in legally significant documents like wills and contracts. We carefully examine every subtle detail of the handwriting characteristics and compare them to the range of variation of the known writer to accurately determine the identity of the signatory. Through meticulous analysis and extensive expertise, KDX contributes valuable insights to legal proceedings and other investigations, ensuring that the truth behind disputed signatures is revealed in a scientifically-supported manner..


Why do you need a Handwriting Expert?

Unlike other types of evidence, handwriting is something that is easily understood by laypeople, such as jurors.  As a result, it is natural to want to compare it on your own. We frequently hear from potential clients that” the signature looks just like” the person’s signature, but research has shown that laypeople are nearly 13 times more likely than a properly trained Forensic Document Examiner (FDE) to incorrectly call a simulated signature genuine.

Hiring a handwriting expert can be very helpful for sorting out issues related to law, forensics, or personal concerns. Handwriting can be tricky to interpret correctly without the right expertise. As professionals, we deeply understand the details of handwriting, including how someone’s skill, the way they vary their writing, and the surface they write on can affect the outcome.

Why types of handwriting can be examined for authorship?

Signatures, initials, cursive writing, hand printing, digitally captured signatures, and eSignatures* all can be examined to determine the authorship.

Signatures and initials are crucial because they serve as unique identifiers, representing individual consent, agreement, or authentication on various documents and transactions. They play a fundamental role in legal, financial, and personal contexts, providing a clear indication of intent and commitment. Signatures uphold accountability, ensure the validity of agreements, and safeguard against fraud or unauthorized alterations. In essence, signatures are the cornerstone of trust and integrity in our interactions and agreements. Accordingly, signatures are among the most frequently examined forms of handwriting to determine authorship.

Cursive writing and hand printing are equally important from an authorship standpoint. Their presence on extended writings such as journals, anonymous notes, threatening letters, and more can provide critical evidence as to who produced a given body of writing.

Furthermore, in the modern age many documents are signed with advanced technologies such as digitally captured signatures and eSignatures. While these advanced technologies provide legally acceptable signatures, not all of them provide forensically reliable signatures. Accordingly, it is critical that when they are disputed that they be thoroughly inspected by a properly qualified examiner.

*Not all eSignatures are forensically reliable for determining authorship

Authorship Examinations
KDX with gavel

Why Choose KDX as your Handwriting Experts?

With over a decade of Forensic Document Examination expertise on behalf of the United States Federal Government, Law Enforcement, and private sector clientele including leading law firms and corporations from around the world, Mr. Kulbacki of KDX isn’t just any handwriting expert. From wills and multimillion dollar contracts to anonymous notes and manifesto, we have seen it all.

Furthermore, in addition to extensive experience in conducting these examinations, Mr. Kulbacki was the Chair of the ASB Working Group that produced the current Standard for the Examination of Handwritten Items in 2022, and one of the first implementers of the current standard.

Trust us to provide meticulous examinations and reliable results, backed by years of hands-on experience, detailed knowledge of industry standards, and a dedication to upholding the highest standards of professionalism and integrity.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a Handwriting Expert?2024-04-11T19:49:01+00:00

A handwriting expert is someone with the training, knowledge, skills, and abilities to examine handwriting for the purpose of determining authorship. This includes both questioned-to-questioned examinations and questioned-to-known-writer examinations.

A handwriting expert is NOT someone who studies or practices graphology of handwriting analysis.

What is a Forensic Document Examiner?2024-04-11T19:49:15+00:00

A Forensic Document Examiner is someone who studies the details and elements of a document in order to determine facts about its preparation.

Are Handwriting Experts and Forensic Document Examiners the same?2024-04-11T19:49:26+00:00

No. While all Forensic Document Examiners are generally Handwriting Experts, not all Handwriting Experts are Forensic Document Examiners. Forensic Document Examination requires additional specialized knowledge and instrumentation for examining many other components of documents, such as inks, fonts, security features, and more.

What qualifications should a Handwriting Expert have?2024-04-11T19:49:43+00:00

The industry standard for training in Forensic Document Examination is the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Document Examination’s (SWGDOC) Standard for Minimum Training Requirements for Forensic Document Examination. The SWGDOC standard required a minimum of an equivalent of 24 months of full-time, in-person, supervised training.

While there are no comprehensive lists of individuals whose training meet the SWGDOC standard, the following two organizations require such training as part of their membership and provide public lists of their membership:

Do I need the original document for a handwriting examination?2024-04-11T19:49:54+00:00

No. While the original, written-ink-on-paper document is always the best evidence; however, physical copies and digital copies can be examined. With that said, the examination of anything other than the original will inherently limit the examinations that can be conducted.

Is there an industry standard for handwriting examinations?2024-04-11T19:50:03+00:00

Yes. The current industry standard is the Academy Standards Board (ASB) Standard 070: Standard for Examination of Handwritten Items, published in 2022. Prior to the ASB Standard, the previous standards were published by the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Document Examiners (SWGDOC).

Are Handwriting Experts accepted by the courts?2024-04-11T19:51:21+00:00

Yes. Handwriting Experts who conduct examinations to determine authorship of a writing are accepted in all jurisdictions, including under Frye, Daubert, FRE, and more.

Can only two signatures be compared?2024-04-11T20:04:06+00:00

Yes; however, this is what would be referred to as a questioned-to-questioned examination. These examinations are inherently limited as they do not allow for an examination of the writer’s range of variation

Other Forensic Services

Technical Examinations

Including examining for alterations, indentations, and security features, utilizing non-destructive, ink differentiations, microscopy, and more.

Typewriter Examinations

Print & Device Comparisons

Including examining fonts and print processes, and comparing to devices such as printers, typewriters, stamps, and more

Shredded Paper

Miscellaneous Examinations

Including examining charred and liquid soaked documents as well as shredded document reconstructions.

KDX with gavel

Reporting & Testimony

Our forensic services are complemented with comprehensive report, testimony, and trial support

“Following a prolonged two-year ordeal, the resolution of our case swiftly came to an abrupt conclusion upon KDX’s submission of their findings. Their expert services sealed the deal, and we are incredibly grateful for their invaluable contribution. If you are on the fence about retaining their services, I strongly urge you to hire KDX. A job well done!”


“Kevin is the only way to go if you are looking for a handwriting expert. He defines the term expert. Besides being extremely good at being an expert, Kevin was so easy to work with. He is professional, informed, reliable, patient, and generous with his time. He will spend time explaining every detail with you and educates you so you know the WHY behind everything. I am so happy I found Kevin’s expertise and would highly recommend his services. Thank you!”


“Kevin is a great handwriting expert! Very responsive, very efficient, very professional, and an absolute pleasure to work with. He has a great way of explaining his work in terms the average person will actually understand. I highly recommend his services!”


“Kevin is pleasant to work with, quick and very professional. His work was detailed and accurate! I am lucky to have found Kevin in my time of need. He also has checked in on my well being many times. I would recommend utilizing KDX Forensic Consulting. Thanks Kevin for everything.”


“KDX Forensic Consulting, LLC is professional, beyond knowledgeable, and excel in client relations. I was a pleasure doing business with them.”


“Kevin and KDX is who our office will use when in need of a handwriting expert on cases. His work is thorough, detailed, and helped our office resolve a contentions contract issue in an estate without the need for a trial or other hearings. Kevin is knowledgeable and articulate and can help attorneys explain the evidentiary process of handwriting review in a manner that the client understands. This aspect is also invaluable as our office does not see a lot of cases involving handwriting/signature issues wherein we need an expert.”


Let us help you find answers

Schedule a free consultation today so we can figure out how to best serve you.

Kevin P. Kulbacki, D-ABFDE
CEO, Forensic Document Examiner

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