Comparing documents to the devices that produce them

Modern documents are produced using various technologies, from typewriters and typestyles to printers and fonts. At KDX, we specialize in examining these technologies to determine how, when, and by what process or device a document was produced.

Our expertise covers analyzing typewriters and typestyles to reveal details about the typewriter model, age, and unique characteristics. We also examine printers and fonts, identifying specific printer types and analyzing font styles and printing patterns to authenticate documents.

Additionally, we investigate rubber stamps and impression devices, identifying stamps used and studying impression patterns to verify authenticity. Our comprehensive approach ensures accurate analysis of these and other components.

Learn more below about how our expertise can assist you in uncovering the truth about your documents.

Fonts & Printed Output

The examination of fonts and printed output involves a careful analysis of documents to identify any alterations and insertions. We focus on minute font characteristics to detect to identify fonts, which further enable the discovery of discrepancies or manipulations. Additionally, we consider the availability of specific fonts at the time the document was purportedly created to address potential concerns of backdating. Fonts can provide valuable context for assessing the authenticity and timeline of a document’s creation.

We can examine printed output to determine the printing technology utilized and  for defects that may prove useful in determining what specific device could have produced a specific document. These defects, known as trashmarks, can provide critical information about the creation of a document.

Typewriting & Typewriters

While typewriters are not as common as they once were, the examination of them and their output can play a vital role in forensic investigations. By analyzing the typestyle of a questioned document, we can identify the make and model of typewriter that may have produced it. Furthermore, this information can then be compared to reference collections to determine when that typewriter was introduced, thereby helping to  address potential backdating concerns by providing a timeline for when the document could have been created.

We can also examine typewriting on a document for defects that can be compared to the output of a specific suspect typewriter. his includes analyzing unique characteristics and wear patterns that are specific to each typewriter. Through this comparison, we can determine if the typewriter produced the document. T Additionally, we can examine typewriter ribbons and correction ribbons to determine exactly what was typed by the typewriter. This can provide direct evidence of the text produced, offering further verification.

Through this comprehensive approach, typewriting examinations can provide crucial insights into the evidence, even in the digital age. By combining typestyle analysis, defect comparisons, and ribbon examinations, we ensure a thorough and accurate assessment of typewritten documents.


Inkjet & Toner Printers

Our examination of documents extends to determining their print process, encompassing inkjet and toner technologies as well as more sophisticated printing methods. Through meticulous analysis, we delve into the characteristics of printed text and images, discerning the subtle differences indicative of various printing methods. By identifying these unique characteristics, we can compare them to the output of known devices, potentially determining what device may have printed a given questioned document.

Furthermore, our expertise includes visualizing machine identification codes embedded in toner prints. These codes can aid in identifying specific printers, providing another layer of verification. Through a comprehensive approach, we provide accurate assessments that shed light on the origin and authenticity of printed documents. Through a detailed analysis of printing methods , we ensure clarity and reliability in investigations, helping to establish the credibility and traceability of printed materials.

Rubber Stamps & Impression Devices

Our examination of rubber stamps, dry seals, and various impressions involves a meticulous analysis aimed at detecting defects and discerning unique characteristics. These examinations are conducted looking for irregularities or inconsistencies that may indicate tampering or manipulation. By comparing these impressions to known devices, such as stamps and seals with established histories, we can determine if they were produced by those devices. This careful examination process ensures thoroughness and accuracy, providing valuable insights into the authenticity and integrity of stamped or sealed documents.

Rubber Stamp Examinations

Other Forensic Services

Authorship Examinations

Authorship Examinations

Including examining signatures, handwriting, hand printing, digitally captured signatures, and eSignatures

Technical Examinations

Including examining for alterations, indentations, and security features, utilizing non-destructive, ink differentiations, microscopy, and more.

Shredded Paper

Miscellaneous Examinations

Including examining charred and liquid soaked documents as well as shredded document reconstructions.

KDX with gavel

Reporting & Testimony

Our forensic services are complemented with comprehensive report, testimony, and trial support

“Following a prolonged two-year ordeal, the resolution of our case swiftly came to an abrupt conclusion upon KDX’s submission of their findings. Their expert services sealed the deal, and we are incredibly grateful for their invaluable contribution. If you are on the fence about retaining their services, I strongly urge you to hire KDX. A job well done!”


“Kevin is the only way to go if you are looking for a handwriting expert. He defines the term expert. Besides being extremely good at being an expert, Kevin was so easy to work with. He is professional, informed, reliable, patient, and generous with his time. He will spend time explaining every detail with you and educates you so you know the WHY behind everything. I am so happy I found Kevin’s expertise and would highly recommend his services. Thank you!”


“Kevin is a great handwriting expert! Very responsive, very efficient, very professional, and an absolute pleasure to work with. He has a great way of explaining his work in terms the average person will actually understand. I highly recommend his services!”


“Kevin is pleasant to work with, quick and very professional. His work was detailed and accurate! I am lucky to have found Kevin in my time of need. He also has checked in on my well being many times. I would recommend utilizing KDX Forensic Consulting. Thanks Kevin for everything.”


“KDX Forensic Consulting, LLC is professional, beyond knowledgeable, and excel in client relations. I was a pleasure doing business with them.”


“Kevin and KDX is who our office will use when in need of a handwriting expert on cases. His work is thorough, detailed, and helped our office resolve a contentions contract issue in an estate without the need for a trial or other hearings. Kevin is knowledgeable and articulate and can help attorneys explain the evidentiary process of handwriting review in a manner that the client understands. This aspect is also invaluable as our office does not see a lot of cases involving handwriting/signature issues wherein we need an expert.”